Raster images are constructed by a series of pixels, or individual blocks, to form an image. JPEGs, GIFs and PNGs are all raster images. Every photo you find online or in print is a raster image. Pixels have a defined proportion based on their resolution (high or low), and when the pixels are stretched to fill space they were not originally intended to fit, they distort resulting in blurry or unclear images. In order to retain pixel quality, you cannot resize raster images without compromising their resolution. As a result, it is important to remember to save raster files at the exact dimensions needed for the application.
Vector images are far more flexible. They are constructed using proportional formulas rather than pixels. EPS, AI and PDF are perfect for creating graphics that require frequent resizing. Your logo and brand graphics should have been created as a vector, and you should always have a master file on hand. The real beauty of vectors lies in their ability to be sized as small as a postage stamp, or large enough to fit on an 18-wheeler!
If you’re not sure whether you have a vector version of your logo, here’s a little trick for you. Call the company that printed your business cards or the vendor that embroidered your logo on a shirt. Very often they will have a vector file of your logo that they can send to you for your records.
Have you heard your designer talk about DPI or PPI? DPI stands for “dots per inch” and PPI translates to “pixels per inch.” These units of measure are essential for determining if the density of pixels in an image is appropriate for the application you are using.
The biggest thing to note when determining what DPI or PPI you require is if you are using an image for print or web. Websites display images at 72dpi, which is low resolution; however images at this resolution look really crisp on the web. This is not the case for print. Best practices for printing an image will require it to be no less than 300dpi.
Don’t try to trick the system. A lot of magic can happen in Photoshop, but creating pixels out of thin air isn’t one of them. Pulling an image off of the web and trying to get it to fit the dimensions of your print project just won’t work. You will end up with a pixelated image that appears stretched and distorted.
JPEGs might be the most common file type you run across on the web, and more than likely the kind of image that is in your company’s MS Word version of its letterhead. JPEGs are known for their “lossy” compression, meaning that the quality of the image decreases as the file size decreases.
You can use JPEGs for projects on the web, in Microsoft Office documents, or for projects that require printing at a high resolution. Paying attention to the resolution and file size with JPEGs is essential in order to produce a nice looking project.
PNGs are amazing for interactive documents such as web pages, but are not suitable for print. While PNGs are “lossless”, meaning you can edit them and not lose quality, they are still low resolution.
The reason PNGs are used in most web projects is that you can save your image with more colors on a transparent background. This makes for a much sharper, web-quality image.
GIFs are most common in their animated form, which are all the rage on Tumblr pages and in banner ads. It seems like every other day we have a new Grumpy Cat or Honey Boo Boo animated GIF. In their more basic form, GIFs are formed from up to 256 colors in the RGB colorspace. Due to the limited number of colors, the file size is drastically reduced.
This is a common file type for web projects where an image needs to load very quickly, as opposed to one that needs to retain a higher level of quality.
A TIF is a large raster file that doesn’t lose quality; it is usually used when saving photographs for print. Don’t use this file on the web; it will take forever to load!
PSDs are files that are created and saved in Adobe Photoshop, the most popular graphics editing software ever! This type of file contains “layers” that make modifying the image much easier to handle. This is also the program that generates the raster file types mentioned above.
The largest disadvantage to PSDs is that Photoshop works with raster images as opposed to vector images.
PDFs were invented by Adobe with the goal of capturing and reviewing rich information from any application, on any computer, with anyone, anywhere. I’d say they have been pretty successful so far. If a designer saves your vector logo in PDF format, then you can view it without any design editing software (as long as you have downloaded the free Acrobat Reader software) and they have the ability to use this file to make further manipulations. This is by far the best universal tool for sharing graphics.
EPS is a file in vector format that has been designed to produce high-resolution graphics for print. Almost any kind of design software can create an EPS. It is more of a universal file type (much like the PDF) that can be used to open vector-based artwork in any design editor, not just the more common Adobe products. This safeguards file transfers to designers that are not yet utilizing Adobe products, but may be using Corel Draw or Quark.
AI is, by far, the image format most preferred by designers and the most reliable type of file format for using images in all types of projects from web to print, etc. Adobe Illustrator is the industry standard for creating artwork from scratch and therefore more than likely the program in which your logo was originally rendered. Illustrator produces vector artwork, the easiest type of file to manipulate. It can also create all of the aforementioned file types. Pretty cool stuff! It is by far the best tool in any designer’s arsenal.
Terms & Conditions…
All business entered into by SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant, its servants or agents with any other party (hereinafter called ‘the Client’), by internet or traditional business routes, is transacted subject to the conditions set out below. PLEASE NOTE: These terms and conditions take precedence over any other contract agreements, especially those drafted by the Client, unless specifically agreed to and notified in a special clause entitled “Waiving normal contract terms and conditions”. Any other contract terms will be honored unless they contradict those specified below.
OWNERSHIP OF COPYRIGHT – Copyright ownership for all work, finished or otherwise, is retained by SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant. Then ownership will transfer to the Client only if this has been specifically agreed with the client and only on completion of the contract and full payment has reached us. SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant will not waive intellectual property rights.
CANCELLATION – In exceptional circumstances, a cancellation fee may be agreed by SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant for work that has been cancelled for whatever reason and will never proceed. Copyright ownership for all work will remain with SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant even when full invoice has been paid.
QUOTATIONS – Quotations are valid for 30 days from date of issue. Quotes for third party fees and costs are subject to + or – 15% margin of error. Similarly, hourly rate changes will not affect projects already begun. Please bear in mind that while we try to estimate costs as accurately as possible, quotations cannot be binding.
CHANGES – The quotation covers the Client for five sets of type corrections thereafter any number of changes will be made with fees accumulating at the hourly rate. On rare occasions the design brief given by the Client may change after work commences should this situation arise a revised design cost will be negotiated.
IMAGE PROCUREMENT – Purchase of images for slide library sites are made on behalf of the Client by SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant, the standard term & conditions apply to the use of these image i.e. licence length, restriction of use, publication run etc. a full set of these terms and conditions are available on request and the responsibility of adhering to them lies entirely with the Client.
CLIENT PROPERTY – Client property left with SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant, including confidential material, will be carefully protected but is entirely at the Client’s risk.
COURIERS & DELIVERY – All courier and delivery charges will be passed on to the Client and may be subject to normal agency mark-up.
PAYMENT TERMS – Existing clients can avail of two weeks credit from the date of the invoice, which will be sent as soon as the job is complete, or within 8 weeks of the date when the job commences. For new clients, and for jobs commissioned over the Internet, on agreement of quotation, payment will be made in three-stage payment one-third before work commenced, one-third during the project and finally payment on completion. The Client will be notified as to the charges as they are billed. The minimum charge for any commissioned job is one hour. Where design work is carried out on the clients premises, a booking is required stating times and dates and a deposit of one-third shall be given which is non-refundable.
PRINCIPLE – The principle of the design service offered by SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant is a consultancy whereby the Client seeks commissioned work based on professional experience, expertise and opinion. SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant will work with the client and agree the best course of action.
DISPUTES – All queries and disputes must be notified via email to email@example.com within seven days of the date of the invoice or receipt of goods. The ownership of the work or goods supplied shall be retained by SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant until SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant has received payment in full by the Client and ownership has been previously negotiated and agreed.
BACK-UP SERVICE – SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant provide a back-up service for all projects for commencement to completed. This facility while beneficial to the Client is carried out for the protection of SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant only. SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant does not accept responsibility for any lost or damaged with respect to this service.
FORCE MAJEURE – Every effort will be made to carry out the contract, but its due performance is subject to variation or cancellation as a result of an inability to secure labour, materials or supplies, or as a result of any Act of God, War, Strike, Lockout or other Labour dispute, Fire, Flood, Draught, Legislation or any other cause beyond our control.
LEGAL LIABILITY – The Client shall be responsible for all costs and damages arising out of any action which may be taken or threatened against SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant in respect of any alleged breach of the law in connection with the work done by SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant for the Client including breaches of Copyright and Licensing. The Client is also responsible for checking all work before production commences and before print or going live on websites in regard to ethical and legal matters and matters of fact, spelling, accuracy, language, translation and other aspects of the final recommended work.
The laws of the Republic of Ireland shall govern the contract between SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant and the Client, of which these standard terms & conditions form part.
SPUDGUN (Stephen Dullaghan) Graphic Design Consultant reserves the right to change these terms and conditions from time to time, affecting all new contracts.